The hottest MIT McGovern Institute for brain scien

2022-08-23
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Director of MIT McGovern Institute of brain science: the future of artificial intelligence needs to be more like the human brain

"for the gene therapy of primates with brain dysfunction, we are about to carry out the first clinical trial." On November 13, Robert Desimone, an academician of the American Academy of Sciences and director of the McGovern Institute of brain science at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), revealed at the first MIT China Summit held in Beijing

"whether the experiment will succeed is still unknown. Some aspects of mental disorders can be improved through gene therapy, but some will not. But personally, even a little mental improvement is enough to comfort me. For example, as long as autism patients can improve their intelligence level by 20%, they can leave professional institutions and live independently."

precision therapy

Desmond has made groundbreaking contributions in the field of cognitive neuroscience. He applied the technology of light controlled genetics to study how the brains of primate model organisms such as cynomolgus monkeys and macaques eliminate interference, focus on specific goals, and deal with information overload. Desmond found that neurons related to attention generate electricity synchronously, just like a symphony orchestra

in addition, Desmond is very concerned about diseases related to brain dysfunction, including autism, schizophrenia and depression

"the treatment of brain functional diseases will become like the treatment of cancer in the future, which is a targeted treatment for specific disorders." He told the media including pengpai (). "This is different from traditional drug therapy. You know, drugs must affect other parts of the body."

gene therapy is a targeted technology. It introduces foreign normal genes into patients' cells to correct defective genes. For brain dysfunction, the biggest difficulty is that there are many related gene loci, which need different treatments. Fortunately, the emerging methods represented by gene magic scissors CRISPR and light sensing gene neural regulation technology have also developed rapidly

revolutionary breakthroughs in a discipline often benefit from the upgrading of research tools, just as telescopes are to astrophysics. Desmond believes that CRISPR may be a revolutionary tool for brain science: "some people say that CRISPR is as epoch-making as the emergence of electricity and computers."

by knocking out the Shank3 gene of macaques with CRISPR technology, we can get primates with autism pattern for pathological analysis and treatment exploration. This research project is being carried out by the director of McGovern Institute of brain science in cooperation with Shenzhen Institute of advanced technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

The McGovern Institute for brain science, established in 2000, was not short of money. It received the largest donation in the history of MIT, up to $350million. However, the research center of primate brain science experiment is being transferred to China

in 2014, Ji Weizhi group of Yunnan primate biomedical research key laboratory used CRISPR technology to carry out precise genetic modification on cynomolgus monkeys, breaking through the zero application of this technology in primates

at the beginning of 2016, Qiu Zilong group of Shanghai Institute of neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, whose measurement range is equivalent to: Aluminum Profile: 24 ~ 110hre copper alloy: 60 ~ 90 HRF published an autism monkey model in nature: human gene MeCP2 was transferred into crab eating monkeys. This transgenic monkey shows similar symptoms to human autism, and the gene can be passed on to its offspring through germline transmission

According to Dai Simon, an autistic monkey bred by Qiu Zilong of Shanghai Institute of neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the outside world mistakenly believes that the prosperity of animal experiments in China is caused by low standards. According to his personal observation, although China's acceptance of animal experiments is high, animal welfare and animal protection are still strict. Dai Simon saw in Shenzhen that the experimental monkeys live in large cages connected with glass houses covered with plants. Such a large activity space is far more than MIT can provide

precision education

in addition to precision therapy, the field of brain science is also exploring precision education. By accelerating the launch of products, not long ago, Simon Dai and the State Key Laboratory of cognitive neuroscience and learning of Beijing Normal University of China completed a study on improving children's sound discrimination ability by playing the piano, which was published in the Journal of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States

74 Chinese speaking children aged 4 to 5 were recruited in Beijing and divided into three groups. The first group received 45 minute piano training three times a week, the second group received the same time and frequency of reading training, and the third group did not intervene. Six months later, the researchers tested the children's ability to distinguish vowels, consonants and tones

EEG monitoring results showed that children in the piano group reacted more strongly when hearing different tones in Chinese than children in other groups

Desmond believes that with the deepening of brain science research, such personalized education will become the general trend. "Every child is different. I'm not saying that every child will have his own private education, but there will definitely be more choices in the future." He said

"precision education can make more children succeed. Under the current education system, too many children do not have the chance to succeed."

artificial intelligence in the future will be more like human

McGovern Brain Science Institute is also trying to use artificial intelligence models to help brain science research. "Brain science is too complex to be understood with simple physical models. We must use a mathematical framework to subdivide the interaction between various components."

scientists have built millions of computer models to find out which one is most similar to the logic of the brain. After verifying the reliability of some functions, this computer model can be used to predict the working logic of other brain functions

then, does the artificial intelligence model have to work like a human brain and learn like a child? Desmond admitted that there was also a dispute on this issue within MIT. He personally believes that in face recognition and other fields, artificial intelligence systems that do not use human brain logic have also worked well. "However, brain science is very important for artificial intelligence in the future. For example, in natural language processing, artificial intelligence needs to become more human like and give us human feelings in dialogue."

Desmond has served as the international jury for five consecutive periods of "the strongest brain"

Desmond has served as the international jury for five consecutive periods of "the strongest brain". Desmond can be called an old acquaintance of China. Rafael reif, the president of MIT, made fun of him in his opening speech at the summit: on the one hand, there are fewer enterprises producing in these unpopular markets. "To some extent, in fact, I am a little surprised that MIT is only holding the first China Summit now. There is no doubt that the exchanges between MIT and China have led us to send special personnel to monitor the Chinese people who have touched the most."

"Robert Desmond is famous in China. When he returns to MIT and strolls around the campus, Chinese tourists often recognize him. Therefore, I am happy to tell you that Professor Desmond will walk on the platform with several other" magical brains "from China and MIT later!"

these "magical brains" include Chen Gang, Professor of electrical engineering, Eric Grimson, honorary president of academic development; Joi ITO, director of Media Laboratory; Robert C. Merton, Nobel Prize winner and distinguished professor of finance; Melissa nobles, Dean of the College of humanities, arts and Social Sciences; Carlo Ratti, director of perception City laboratory; Daniela Rus, director of the computer science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and other 16 teaching staff, as well as Bai Chunli, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, pan Jianwei, executive vice president of the University of science and technology of China, Tang Xiaoou, Professor of the Chinese University of Hong Kong and founder of Shangtang technology, Liu Qingfeng, chairman and chief executive officer of iFLYTEK limited, and Zhang Yaqin, President of Baidu

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